The Hindu Editorial Decoding in HINDI | 24 Feb 2018

Here we have covered both the editorials of 24 feb 2018 :

Editorial – 1



Virtue of reticence: on Bipin Rawat’s comment about illegal immigration in Northeast

Army chief General Bipin Rawat’s comments about an “inversion (उलट देना/विपरिवर्तन) in demographics (जनसांख्यिकी)” and a “planned migration” from Bangladesh into the Northeast are unusual by any standards. India’s service chiefs have a long and healthy tradition (परंपरा/रिवाज) of keeping away from political subjects in their public comments. But at a seminar in Delhi this week, General Rawat strayed into political commentary when he talked about issues of religious identity, demographics, and India’s relations with its neighbours. He said that migration (प्रवास/स्थानान्तरण) from Bangladesh into India is driven by two factors. The first is the acute (तीव्र/चालाक) pressure on land in Bangladesh. “The other issue,” he said, “is planned immigration which is taking place because of our western neighbour… It is the proxy (प्रतिनिधि/प्रतिपत्र) dimension (परिमाण/विस्तार) of warfare.” This strategy(रणनीति,), he went on, is supported by “our northern neighbour”. The references were clearly to Pakistan and China. Such departures from a tradition of being reticent (अल्पभाषी), if not totally silent, are rare. But it is exactly this self-restraint (संयम/कठोरता) that has served both Indian democracy and the military well. India’s success in keeping the Army out of politics, compared to most other countries that gained independence from colonial (उपनिवेशी) rule in the mid-20th century, has in fact been the subject of scholarly research.
In turn, the neat (स्वच्छ/स्पष्ट)  separation (विभाजन/विच्छेद) has allowed the Army to maintain its professionalism (व्यावसायिकता) and retain public trust even as it is frequently (लगातार/अक्सर) called upon to assist the administration in times of communal strife (संघर्ष/विवाद) and subregional (उप क्षेत्रीय) insurgencies (विद्रोहों/राज-द्रोह). This arrangement has also inhibited (हिचकते/मना करना) governments from bidding the Army to do their politically expedient (फ़ायदेमंद/उपाय) tasks. It is a balance that must hold, and this is why General Rawat’s possibly off-the-cuff observations on foreign policy and domestic politics were unfortunate. There is a risk ofhostile ((शत्रुतापूर्ण/प्रतिकूल) rejoinders from India’s regional rivals (प्रतिद्वंद्वी). It also risks reactions from home, which have already come in the form of a sharp response (तीव्र प्रतिक्रिया) from the All India United Democratic Front. Its chief Maulana Badruddin Ajmal, who was reacting to General Rawat’s comment that the AIUDF in Assam was growing at a faster clip than the Bharatiya Janata Party did, charged him with straying from hisconstitutional remit (संवैधानिक छूट). The head of another political party tweeted that it is not the job of the Army to comment on political matters. This is not the first time that General Rawat’s comments have evoked (पुकारना)a response from political quarters. Last month, the Jammu and Kashmir education minister reacted when General Rawat criticised (आलोचना करना/निंदा करना) government schools in the State for mounting two maps, “one of India and the other of J&K”. Even if such remarks were made in good faith, the point is that they can result in needless controversies (विवादों/तकरार) that do nothing to promote the Army’s strong and fully deserving image of an institution that is above politics.

Important Vocabulary

1.Migration (प्रवास/स्थानान्तरण) 
Synonyms: exodus, flight, journey, movement, shift
Antonyms: idleness, inaction
2.Acute (तीव्र/चालाक)
Synonyms: intense, keen, sharp, subtle, sensitive
Antonyms: blunt, calm, dull, forthrigh, thonest
3.Dimension (परिमाण/विस्तार)
Synonyms: aspect, element, extent, height, importance
Antonyms: insignificance, unimportance
4.Colonial (उपनिवेशी)
Synonyms: crude, dependent, dominion, emigrant, frontier
Antonyms: gentle, modern, sophisticated
5.Neat (स्वच्छ/स्पष्ट)
Synonyms: accurate, elegant, immaculate, orderly, precise
Antonyms: careless, dirty, disorganized, dull, false
6.Hostile ((शत्रुतापूर्ण/प्रतिकूल)
Synonyms: adverse, belligerent, bitter, contentious, contrary
Antonyms: agreeable, aiding, favorable, friendly, good
7.Evoked (पुकारना)
Synonyms: arouse, conjure, elicit, invoke, provoke
Antonyms: calm, deaden, decrease, ignore, repress
8.Strife (संघर्ष/विवाद) 
Synonyms: animosity, bickering, clash, conflict, controversy
Antonyms: accord, agreement, concurrence, harmony, peace
Synonyms: bashful, hesitant, mum, reserved, restrained
Antonyms: communicative, confident, extroverted, outgoing, talkative
10.Rivals (प्रतिद्वंद्वी). 
Synonyms: adversary, challenger, competition, competitor, contender
Antonyms: ally, helper, difference, associate, cohort


Canary in coal mine: on making coal mining private

Forty-five years after India nationalised its coal-mining industry, the Central government has allowed the re-entry of commercial mining firms into the sector, turning the clock back. India’s coal industry waspredominantly (मुख्य रूप से/प्रभावपूर्णता से) driven by the private sector after Independence until the Indira Gandhi government decided to transfer all coal holdings to Coal India through the Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973. The key reason cited (हवाला देना/उद्धृत) for taking coal out of the private sector’s hands was that it wasessential (आवश्यक/अनिवार्य)  to meet power needs. Now, India’s coal market is a virtual(वास्तविक/प्रभाव डालनेवाला) monopoly (एकाधिकार) for the public sector behemoth (सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र की सीमा). Coal India accounts for over 80% of the country’s coal supply. Another public sector firm, Singareni Collieries Company, and some captive coal mines allotted to private players for specific end-uses such as in the steel and power industries, account for the rest. Opening up commercial mining and sale of coal for private players is an overdue reform (अतिदेय सुधार).India has a high dependence on coal for power generation. Despite an aggressive push for renewable and nuclear sources, 70% of electricity generation is through coal-fired thermal plants. In recent years there has been a significant surge in imports as Coal India, despite its rich coal-bearing belts and increased output, is unable to keep pace with demand from new power plants.
To be sure, the NDA government has moved swiftly to fix the mess it inherited (वंशगत/आनुवंशिक) from the UPA, especially irregularities (अव्यवस्था) in allocation. In September 2014, the Supreme Court cancelled the allocation of 204 coal mines to public and private players, after the Comptroller (नियंत्रक) and Auditor General of India found fault with the allocation mechanism. An ordinance was brought in quickly and a transparent auction process was evolved for the affected mines, benefiting from lessons learnt from the telecom spectrum (विस्तार/वर्णक्रम) allocation mess. The intention (इरादा/अभिप्राय) was to ensure that there are no supply shocks for power producers on account of abrupt (अकस्मात/अचानक) disruptions (अवरोधों/दुर्घटना) in mining operations. Enabling provisions for commercial mining and sale of coal were already included in the Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Act of 2015; the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has now allowed their operationalisation (संचालन) by clearing the methodology to be followed for auctioning rights. The government says the move will boost energy security, making coal affordable (सस्ती) and creating jobs. To ascertain (सुनिश्चित करना/पता लगाना) the quality of outcomes, it will be important to see which blocks are actually offered to private players; they should not just be the mines Coal India isn’t keen on. Norms to ensure miners’ safety must be upgraded. Lastly, the integrity of the process is key, so that auctions don’t translate into a winners’ curse as has happened in sectors like telecom. The import-dependent energy sector cannot afford it.

Important Vocabulary

1.Predominantly (मुख्य रूप से/प्रभावपूर्णता से)
Synonyms: especially staressentially, largely, mostly, principally
Antonyms: unimportantly
2.Virtual(वास्तविक/प्रभाव डालनेवाला)
Synonyms: basic, constructive, essential, fundamental, implicit
Antonyms: actual, authentic, real
3.Irregularities (अव्यवस्था)
Synonyms: distortion, flaw, inconsistency, aberration, asymmetry
Antonyms: perfection, conformity, continuation, regularity, sameness
4.Abrupt (अकस्मात/अचानक) 
Synonyms: blunt, brusque, crude, crusty, curt
Antonyms: at easecalmdeliberateexpansivegradual
5.Affordable (सस्ती)
Synonyms: cheap, economical, fair, low-cost, modest
Antonyms: costly, expensive, pricey, unaffordable, exorbitant
6.Inherited (वंशगत/आनुवंशिक)
Synonyms: rooted, congenital, connate, genetic, handed down
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