Checks and balance: On EVMs

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Checks and balance: On EVMs

Seeking a count of 50% of VVPAT slips is too much; the focus should be on ending glitches.
In a significant(महत्वपूर्ण /सार्थक) and welcome change from their earlier demand(मांग/अनुरोध) for a return to paper ballots, representatives(प्रतिनिधि) of a large section of the mainstream(मुख्यधारा ) Opposition parties(विपक्षी दल) met the Election Commission (ECI) to demand changes to the Voter Verifiable(सत्यापन योग्य) Paper Audit Trail counting process during(दौरान) the general elections. Returning to paper ballots will be regressive(वापस आनेवाला/प्रतिगामी) . The Electronic Voting Machine process, despite(बावजूद/विरोध से) the plethora(ढेर/अधिकता) of grievances(शिकायतों ) about its functioning(कामकाज) from the Opposition parties, is a major(प्रमुख ) improvement(सुधार) over paper-based voting. There has been no evidence(सबूत/साक्ष्य) of EVM-tampering as claimed(दावा ) by some parties, and administrative(प्रशासनिक ) and technical(तकनीकी ) safeguards(सुरक्षा उपायों ) instituted(स्थापित/संस्थापित) by the ECI and EVM manufacturers have held steady(स्थिर/नियमित) since the introduction of the EVM. Despite this, the ECI had fast-tracked the implementation(कार्यान्वयन) of the VVPAT, an adjunct to the EVM that allows for a paper trail for voting and later verification of the electronically registered(पंजीकृत ) mandate(जनादेश) in the ballot unit of the EVM. VVPATs are now deployed(तैनात/खोलना) in all Assembly and parliamentary elections with EVMs. This implementation has not been without some misgivings(गलतफहमी). The Opposition’s demand for a count of 50% of the VVPAT slips, as opposed to the current system of counting VVPAT slips in one randomly(बेतरतीब ढंग से/निरुद्देश्यता से) selected booth of each constituency(निर्वाचन क्षेत्र), is aimed at ensuring(सुनिश्चित/सुरक्षित ) that EVMs have not been tampered with. ECI safeguards are robust enough to prevent this, but VVPAT recounts could eliminate(हटाना/को खत्म) any remaining doubt about possible “insider(“अंदरूनी सूत्र) fraud(धोखाधड़ी)” by errant officials or manufacturers.

While the demand to count half of all the slips is an over-reaction, as a scientifically and randomly chosen sample of booths is a reasonable(उचित/वाजिब) enough(पर्याप्त ) verification for the process, there remains the question whether counting one booth per constituency is a statistically significant sample to rule out errors. A more robust(मजबूत/ठोस) sampling technique that factors in the average size of the electorate(मतदाताओं/निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) in any constituency for each State and voter turnout, involving the counting of more than a single booth in some States, may be a better(बेहतर) method(तरीका). The ECI’s response that it is waiting for a report on this from the Indian Statistical Institute should be encouraging(उत्साहजनक ). The other issue with the VVPAT is more significant: machine glitches(खामियों). During the parliamentary by-elections in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and Assembly elections in Karnataka in 2018, VVPAT glitches resulted in machine replacement rates rising to 20% and 4%, respectively. Glitches in the VVPAT machines were largely due to spooling issues in the print unit, which was sensitive(संवेदनशील) to extreme(अत्यधिक ) weather. Some hardware-related changes were introduced, which improved its functioning in the recent elections in five States. Machine replacement rates due to VVPAT failures came down to 1.89% for Chhattisgarh. Deployment(तैनाती/तैनाती) of improved(सुधार ) machines should help curb glitches in the Lok Sabha elections.

 

Important Vocabulary

1. Plethora(ढेर/अधिकता)
Synonyms: deluge, glut, overabundance, plenty, profusion
Antonyms: lack, need, scarcity, want, few

2. Verifiable(सत्यापन योग्य)
Synonyms: valid, conformable, correct, testable

3.Regressive(वापस आनेवाला/प्रतिगामी)
Synonyms: counterrevolutionary, rightist, rigid, Tory, obscurantist
Antonyms: liberal, progressive, radical

4. Grievances(शिकायतों
Synonyms: grief, hardship, injustice, objection, outrage
Antonyms: delight, happiness, joy, advantage, aid

5. Steady(स्थिर/नियमित)
Synonyms: constant, durable, regular, reliable, safe
Antonyms: irregular, undependable, unreliable, unsteady, untrustworthy

6. Evidence(सबूत/साक्ष्य)
Synonyms: clue, confirmation, data, deposition, documentation
Antonyms: concealment, denial, hiding, contradiction, disproof

7. Mandate(जनादेश)
Synonyms: authorization, command, decree, directive, injunction
Antonyms: breach, break, denial, question, refusal

8. Ensuring(सुनिश्चित/सुरक्षित )
Synonyms: assure, establish, insure, protect, provide
Antonyms: endanger, harm, hurt, injure, contradict

9. Misgivings(गलतफहमी)
Synonyms: anxiety, apprehension, distrust, doubt, foreboding
Antonyms: assurance, belief, calmness, certainty, confidence

10. Randomly(बेतरतीब ढंग से/निरुद्देश्यता से)
Synonyms: aimlessly, haphazardly, inconstantly

11. Safeguards(सुरक्षा उपायों )
Synonyms: security, shield, aegis, armament, armor
Antonyms: endangerment, harm, hurt, injury

12. Reasonable(उचित/वाजिब)
Synonyms: acceptable, cheap, equitable, fair, feasible
Antonyms: assured, biased, bold, invalid, irrational

13. Robust(मजबूत/ठोस)
Synonyms: booming, hearty, hefty, potent, powerful
Antonyms: fragile, impotent, incapable, ineffective, lethargic

14. Extreme(अत्यधिक )
Synonyms: acute, intense, severe, utmost, high
Antonyms: calm, dull, mild, moderate, inferior

15. Glitches(खामियों).
Synonyms: bug, defect, flaw, hitch, malfunction
Antonyms: advantage, perfection, strength

16. Deployment(तैनाती/तैनाती)
Synonyms: distribution, formation, stationing, categorization, classification


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Credit To The Hindu News Paper

Seeking a count of 50% of VVPAT slips is too much; the focus should be on ending glitches.
In a significant and welcome change from their earlier demand for a return to paper ballots, representatives of a large section of the mainstream Opposition parties met the Election Commission (ECI) to demand changes to the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail counting process during the general elections. Returning to paper ballots will be regressive. The Electronic Voting Machine process, despite the plethora of grievances about its functioning from the Opposition parties, is a major improvement over paper-based voting. There has been no evidence of EVM-tampering as claimed by some parties, and administrative and technical safeguards instituted by the ECI and EVM manufacturers have held steady since the introduction of the EVM. Despite this, the ECI had fast-tracked the implementation of the VVPAT, an adjunct to the EVM that allows for a paper trail for voting and later verification of the electronically registered mandate in the ballot unit of the EVM. VVPATs are now deployed in all Assembly and parliamentary elections with EVMs. This implementation has not been without some misgivings. The Opposition’s demand for a count of 50% of the VVPAT slips, as opposed to the current system of counting VVPAT slips in one randomly selected booth of each constituency, is aimed at ensuring that EVMs have not been tampered with. ECI safeguards are robust enough to prevent this, but VVPAT recounts could eliminate any remaining doubt about possible “insider fraud” by errant officials or manufacturers.

While the demand to count half of all the slips is an over-reaction, as a scientifically and randomly chosen sample of booths is a reasonable enough verification for the process, there remains the question whether counting one booth per constituency is a statistically significant sample to rule out errors. A more robust sampling technique that factors in the average size of the electorate in any constituency for each State and voter turnout, involving the counting of more than a single booth in some States, may be a better method. The ECI’s response that it is waiting for a report on this from the Indian Statistical Institute should be encouraging. The other issue with the VVPAT is more significant: machine glitches. During the parliamentary by-elections in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and Assembly elections in Karnataka in 2018, VVPAT glitches resulted in machine replacement rates rising to 20% and 4%, respectively. Glitches in the VVPAT machines were largely due to spooling issues in the print unit, which was sensitive to extreme weather. Some hardware-related changes were introduced, which improved its functioning in the recent elections in five States. Machine replacement rates due to VVPAT failures came down to 1.89% for Chhattisgarh. Deployment of improved machines should help curb glitches in the Lok Sabha elections.