Breathing clean

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Breathing clean

 

Political will is integral to the tackling of India’s hazardous air pollution
An assessment(आकलन) of the quality(गुणवत्ता ) of air across countries and in cities has come as a fresh warning to India on the levels of deadly(घातक ) pollutants(प्रदूषक) its citizens are breathing(सांस लेना/प्राणत्व). The IQ AirVisual 2018 World Air Quality Report published(प्रकाशित) in collaboration(सहयोग/सहभागिता) with Greenpeace underscores that Delhi remains(बाकी है) an extremely(बेहद /अत्यंत) hazardous(खतरनाक) city to live in. The national capital exposes people to air containing(युक्त) annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of 113.5 micrograms per cubic metre, when it should be no more than 10 micrograms as per WHO guidelines. In fact, Gurugram, which borders Delhi, fares even worse with a PM2.5 level of 135.8 micrograms, while 15 of the 20 cities worldwide(दुनिया भर में) ranked the worst on air pollution metrics are in India. Delhi’s air quality has been making headlines for years now. Yet, measures(उपाय कार्यवाही) to mitigate(घटाना/कम करना) emissions(उत्सर्जन/फैलाव) have not moved into crisis(संकट ) mode: the launch this year of the National Clean Air Programme for 102 cities and towns, including(समेत) the capital, talks only of long-term benefits of mitigation programmes beyond 2024, and not a dramatic(नाटकीय ) reduction(कमी) in near-term pollution. This has to change, and an annual(वार्षिक ) target(लक्ष्य) for reduction be set to make governments accountable(जवाबदेह/उत्तरदायी). Achieving(प्राप्त करना) a reduction(कमी /छूट) within a short window is not impossible(असंभव/कठिन) if there is the political will to reform key sectors: transport, biomass and construction(निर्माण).

The monitoring(निगरानी) of air quality in real time across cities and towns in India is far from adequate(पर्याप्त ) or uniform. The evidence(सबूत/साक्ष्य) from Delhi, which is relatively(अपेक्षाकृत ) more robust(मजबूत), has clear pointers to what needs to be done. The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises learnt(सीखा/शिक्षित) from a commissioned study last year that dusty sources such as roads, construction sites and bare(मात्र/ख़ाली) soil added about 42% of the coarse particulate matter (PM10) in summer, while in winter it was a significant 31%. Similarly(इसी तरह,/उसी प्रकार) , PM10 from transport varied between 15% and 18% across seasons. Yet, it is the even more unhealthy PM2.5 penetrating(तीव्र/घुसना) the lungs(फेफड़ों ) that causes(कारण ) greater worry(अधिक चिंता ). Vehicles contributed(योगदान) 18-23% of these particulates(विविक्त), while biomass burning(जलने ) was estimated(अनुमान ) to make up 15-22%, and dusty sources 34% during summer. These insights(अंतर्दृष्टि) provide a road map for action. The Delhi government, which has done well to decide on inducting 1,000 electric buses, should speed up the plan and turn its entire(संपूर्ण/तमाम) fleet green. A transition to electric vehicles for all commercial applications, with funding from the Centre’s programme for adoption of EVs, should be a priority(प्राथमिकता) in cities. Cutting nitrogen and sulphur emissions(फैलाव/उत्सर्जन) from industrial processes needs a time-bound programme supervised(देखरेख ) by the Environment Ministry. These are priority measures(उपायों) to get urban India out of the red zone.

 

Important Vocabulary

1. breathing(सांस लेना/प्राणत्व).
Synonyms: respiratory, gasping, inhaling, panting, wheezing
Antonyms:breathless, dead, deceased, lifeless

2. extremely(बेहद /अत्यंत
Synonyms: acutely, awfully, exceedingly, exceptionally, excessively
Antonyms:incompletely, little, mildly, moderately

3. hazardous(खतरनाक)
Synonyms: dicey, difficult, perilous, precarious, risky
Antonyms: certain, definite, safe, secure, stable

4. collaboration(सहयोग/सहभागिता
Synonyms: association, collusion, combination, concert, participation
Antonyms: disunion, division, separation, noncooperation

5. mitigate(घटाना/कम करना)
Synonyms: allay, alleviate, assuage, blunt, dull
Antonyms:aggravate, agitate, extend, increase, intensify

6. emissions(उत्सर्जन/फैलाव)
Synonyms: discharge, radiation, ejaculation, ejection, emanation
Antonyms: concealment, containment, refrain, repression, suppression

7. reduction(कमी /छूट)
Synonyms: contraction, cut, cutback, devaluation, discount
Antonyms: increase, enlargement

8. containing(युक्त)
Synonyms: accommodate, consist of, enclose, encompass, have
Antonyms:exclude, free, disbelieve, let go, release

9. monitoring(निगरानी)
Synonyms: audit, check, control, follow, keep an eye on
Antonyms: ignore, neglect, forget

10. causes(कारण )
Synonyms: element, explanation, matter, motivation, motive
Antonyms:discouragement, effect, result, conclusion, finish

11. emissions(फैलाव/उत्सर्जन)
Synonyms: discharge, radiation, ejaculation, ejection, emanation
Antonyms: concealment, containment, refrain, repression, suppression

12. insights(अंतर्दृष्टि)
Synonyms: acumen, intuition, judgment, observation, understanding
Antonyms: ignorance, stupidity

14. robust(मजबूत),
Synonyms: booming, hearty, hefty, potent, powerful
Antonyms: fragile, impotent, incapable, ineffective, lethargic

 

 

 

Credit To The Hindu News Paper

Political will is integral to the tackling of India’s hazardous air pollution
An assessment of the quality of air across countries and in cities has come as a fresh warning to India on the levels of deadly pollutants its citizens are breathing. The IQ AirVisual 2018 World Air Quality Report published in collaboration with Greenpeace underscores that Delhi remains an extremely hazardous city to live in. The national capital exposes people to air containing annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of 113.5 micrograms per cubic metre, when it should be no more than 10 micrograms as per WHO guidelines. In fact, Gurugram, which borders Delhi, fares even worse with a PM2.5 level of 135.8 micrograms, while 15 of the 20 cities worldwide ranked the worst on air pollution metrics are in India. Delhi’s air quality has been making headlines for years now. Yet, measures to mitigate emissions have not moved into crisis mode: the launch this year of the National Clean Air Programme for 102 cities and towns, including the capital, talks only of long-term benefits of mitigation programmes beyond 2024, and not a dramatic reduction in near-term pollution. This has to change, and an annual target for reduction be set to make governments accountable. Achieving a reduction within a short window is not impossible if there is the political will to reform key sectors: transport, biomass and construction.

The monitoring of air quality in real time across cities and towns in India is far from adequate or uniform. The evidence from Delhi, which is relatively more robust, has clear pointers to what needs to be done. The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises learnt from a commissioned study last year that dusty sources such as roads, construction sites and bare soil added about 42% of the coarse particulate matter (PM10) in summer, while in winter it was a significant 31%. Similarly, PM10 from transport varied between 15% and 18% across seasons. Yet, it is the even more unhealthy PM2.5 penetrating the lungs that causes greater worry. Vehicles contributed 18-23% of these particulates, while biomass burning was estimated to make up 15-22%, and dusty sources 34% during summer. These insights provide a road map for action. The Delhi government, which has done well to decide on inducting 1,000 electric buses, should speed up the plan and turn its entire fleet green. A transition to electric vehicles for all commercial applications, with funding from the Centre’s programme for adoption of EVs, should be a priority in cities. Cutting nitrogen and sulphur emissions from industrial processes needs a time-bound programme supervised by the Environment Ministry. These are priority measures to get urban India out of the red zone.